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Topics - 🍁 Aria 🔮

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Serious / Discussion: The Ego and Group Identity vs Criticism
« on: May 19, 2020, 11:44:30 AM »
Prompt: A popular subject of criticism is Criticism itself; very often (more predominantly on social media), persons have a tendency to react negatively to any criticism of their community or object of affection (celebrities, fictional literature, television, etc). This seems to be especially true when the one providing criticism is not within the group, even if their criticisms are not framed offensively (Hornsey, M. J., Trembath, M., & Gunthorpe, S. (2004). “You can criticize because you care”: identity attachment, constructiveness, and the intergroup sensitivity effect). A "negativity bias", or being forced to counteract our own physiology when our (the group's) actions are called into question. As K. Wright framed this in her Psychology Today article in 2011, "Our reactions are based on deeply seeded “fight or flight” survival instincts. When we are critiqued we risk exclusion and with a pack mentality, this would equal death." Baumeister explains this in his 2001 publication ("Bad is Stronger than Good") as the brain retaining a changed pattern of neuronal connection between cells in response to a fear-inducing conditioned stimulus, even after the stimulus is no longer present.
Group identity, when approached with criticism, can then provide the battleground for issues that is fueled by modernity through an incredibly interconnected society provided by social media and increased communication. When the group is criticized, a member thus might as well see this as a criticism of themselves and exposes the ego. Now in a fight-or-flight scenario, an individual has two choices: they can reflect on their character, practicing mindfulness and considering the possibility that their actions or understanding of a subject are worthy of criticism; or they can become defensive, questioning the validity of the criticism.

How strongly should we consider the argument of "othered" persons or groups? When is it okay to censure one prior to engaging in material? When is criticism necessary and when is it pedantic? Finally, the most broad question: at what point ought one call into question how they identify themselves, or define themselves by external subjects?

The Flood / Unofficial 2018 MLB Playoffs Thread
« on: October 02, 2018, 07:00:23 AM »
We have cheaper seats for cheaper streams because we don't pay for licensing nor do we have contractual obligations!

Gaming / Consoles are better than PCs
« on: August 20, 2018, 08:04:56 AM »
Want me to prove it, the Nintendo Switch is retailing at around £280, find me a laptop for £280 or less than can even remotely compete with the switch? I will save you some time, you cant.

Same for a console,PS4 is retailing for around £185 brand new, find me a PC that can run the games it can at the same price or less, I will save you more time you cant.

The facts are you need to spend WAY more money to game on consoles and that's the reason you PcFags are so toxic and shit on consoles, you have to spend every moment of your life justifying your expensive purchase.

The Flood / Who's lost family/loved ones?
« on: July 12, 2018, 05:28:45 PM »
How did you grieve? How long did it take you to feel normal again?

The Flood / Happy birthday to Me
« on: January 27, 2018, 12:03:11 AM »
Taylor Swift on repeat for 24 hours

The Flood / You can only find peace in this world by lying to yourself
« on: January 20, 2018, 01:45:40 AM »
Tell yourself that things, or God, your job, or drugs will fill the void. Be a happy cog, or forfeit the gift so graciously given forth by your lineage.

peepee poopoo

The Flood / AMA hi yes gib me thanks
« on: November 20, 2017, 08:26:16 PM »
lemon twists

The Flood / AMA Good Day
« on: October 07, 2017, 03:18:41 AM »
Put in my 2 week where I work now
Also had a good day there regardless
Going to see my dog for the first time in months on Sunday
Added another CIB to my Metroid collection
I'm caught up through next Tuesday on all my schoolwork
And I've tasted the devil's nectar

AMA sep7abois

Gaming / Humble Monthly Bundle - October 2017
« on: October 06, 2017, 08:14:14 PM »
This month's games are:

-Quake Champions
-The Elder Scrolls Online (base game)
- The Elder Scrolls Legends

As with all monthly bundles, it costs $12; this time next month, the bundle will end and the hidden games in it will be revealed.

Gaming / Vidya Finds
« on: September 29, 2017, 02:41:22 PM »
Went to a used game store today hoping to find a copy of ST

Found one CIB  (cool), but found something better


It was amazing, so happy rn.

The Flood / Recommend me a tv novella
« on: September 13, 2017, 11:37:42 PM »

The Flood /
« on: September 05, 2017, 08:35:49 PM »

The Flood / what did they mean by this
« on: September 03, 2017, 08:36:36 PM »

any. Originally intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century. The drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients, which were kola nuts (a source of caffeine) and coca leaves. The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a trade secret, although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published.

The Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, which is then sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce (350 ml) can contains 38 grams (1.3 oz) of sugar (usually in the form of high fructose corn syrup). The bottlers then sell, distribute, and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores, restaurants, and vending machines throughout the world. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors.

The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name. The most common of these is Diet Coke, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola Vanilla, and special versions with lemon, lime, and coffee. Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2015, Coca-Cola was the world's third most valuable brand, after Apple and Google.[2] In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers downing more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day.[3]


    1 History
        1.1 19th-century historical origins
        1.2 The Coca-Cola Company
        1.3 Origins of bottling
        1.4 20th century
        1.5 New Coke
        1.6 21st century
    2 Production
        2.1 Ingredients
        2.2 Formula of natural flavorings
        2.3 Use of stimulants in formula
            2.3.1 Coca – cocaine
            2.3.2 Kola nuts – caffeine
        2.4 Franchised production model
    3 Geographic spread
    4 Brand portfolio
        4.1 Logo design
        4.2 Contour bottle design
        4.3 Types
        4.4 Designer bottles
    5 Competitors
    6 Advertising
        6.1 5 cents
        6.2 Holiday campaigns
        6.3 Sports sponsorship
        6.4 In mass media
    7 Medicinal application
    8 Criticism
    9 Colombian death-squad allegations
    10 Use as political and corporate symbol
    11 Social causes
    12 See also
    13 References
    14 Further reading
        14.1 Primary sources
    15 External links

19th-century historical origins
Eagle Drug and Chemical House in Columbus, Georgia
John Pemberton, the original inventor of Coca-Cola
Believed to be the first coupon ever, this ticket for a free glass of Coca-Cola was first distributed in 1888 to help promote the drink. By 1913, the company had redeemed 8.5 million tickets.[4]
This Coca-Cola advertisement from 1943 is still displayed in Minden, Louisiana.
Early Coca-Cola bottling machine at Biedenharn Museum and Gardens in Monroe, Louisiana

Confederate Colonel John Pemberton, who was wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine, began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug.[5] The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House,[6] a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, originally as a coca wine.[7][8] He may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French coca wine.[9] It is also worth noting that a Spanish drink called "Kola Coca" was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, a year before the official birth of Coca-cola. The patent for this Spanish drink was bought by Coca-Cola in 1953.[10]

In 1885, Pemberton registered his French Wine Coca nerve tonic.[11] In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of French Wine Coca.[12] The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886.[13] It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents[14] a glass at soda fountains, which were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health.[15] Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, indigestion, nerve disorders, headaches, and impotence. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal.[16]

By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A co-partnership had been formed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J.C. Mayfield, A.O. Murphey, C.O. Mullahy, and E.H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years later asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887.[17] John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, Charley, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula.[18]

Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place.[19] Charley's exclusive control over the "Coca-Cola" name became a continual thorn in Asa Candler's side. Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler specifically states: "..., on April 14, 1888, the young druggist [Asa Griggs Candler] purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an almost completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola."[20]
Old German Coca-Cola bottle opener.

The deal was actually between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. – with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Walker, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the name. After the April 14 deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750.[21]
The Coca-Cola Company

In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; "The Coca-Cola Company" (the current corporation). When Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" burned in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time.[22]

After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca-Cola in April 1888, he nevertheless was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the middle of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist was quite anxious to establish a firmer legal claim to Coca-Cola, and hoped he could force his two competitors, Walker and Dozier, completely out of the business, as well.[23]

On August 16, 1888, Dr. John Stith Pemberton suddenly died; Asa G. Candler then sought to move swiftly forward to attain his vision of taking full control of the whole Coca-Cola operation.

Charley Pemberton, an alcoholic, was the one obstacle who unnerved Asa Candler more than anyone else. Candler is said to have quickly maneuvered to purchase the exclusive rights to the name "Coca-Cola" from Pemberton's son Charley right after Dr. Pemberton's death. One of several stories was that Candler bought the title to the name from Charley's mother for $300; approaching her at Dr. Pemberton's funeral. Eventually, Charley Pemberton was found on June 23, 1894, unconscious, with a stick of opium by his side. Ten days later, Charley died at Atlanta's Grady Hospital at the age of 40.[24]

In Charles Howard Candler's 1950 book about his father, he stated: "On August 30th [1888], he [Asa Candler] became sole proprietor of Coca-Cola, a fact which was stated on letterheads, invoice blanks and advertising copy."[25]

With this action on August 30, 1888, Candler's sole control became technically all true. Candler had negotiated with Margaret Dozier and her brother Woolfolk Walker a full payment amounting to $1,000, which all agreed Candler could pay off with a series of notes over a specified time span. By May 1, 1889, Candler was now claiming full ownership of the Coca-Cola beverage, with a total investment outlay by Candler for the drink enterprise over the years amounting to $2,300.[26]

In 1914, Margaret Dozier, as co-owner of the original Coca-Cola Company in 1888, came forward to claim that her signature on the 1888 Coca-Cola Company bill of sale had been forged. Subsequent analysis of certain similar transfer documents had also indicated John Pemberton's signature was most likely a forgery, as well, which some accounts claim was precipitated by his son Charley.[27]

On September 12, 1919, Coca-Cola Co. was purchased by a group of investors for $25 million and reincorporated. The company publicly offered 500,000 shares of the company for $40 a share.[28][29]

In 1986, The Coca-Cola Company merged with two of their bottling operators (owned by JTL Corporation and BCI Holding Corporation) to form Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc. (CCE).[30]

In December 1991, Coca-Cola Enterprises merged with the Johnston Coca-Cola Bottling Group, Inc.[30]
Origins of bottling
Bottling plant of Coca-Cola Canada Ltd. January 8, 1941. Montreal, Canada.

The first bottling of Coca-Cola occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Company in 1891. The proprietor of the bottling works was Joseph A. Biedenharn. The original bottles were Biedenharn bottles, very different from the much later hobble-skirt design of 1915 now so familiar.

It was then a few years later that two entrepreneurs from Chattanooga, Tennessee, namely Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, proposed the idea of bottling and were so persuasive that Candler signed a contract giving them control of the procedure for only one dollar.[31] Candler never collected his dollar, but in 1899, Chattanooga became the site of the first Coca-Cola bottling company. Candler remained very content just selling his company's syrup.[32] The loosely termed contract proved to be problematic for The Coca-Cola Company for decades to come. Legal matters were not helped by the decision of the bottlers to subcontract to other companies, effectively becoming parent bottlers.[33] This contract specified that bottles would be sold at 5¢ each and had no fixed duration, leading to the fixed price of Coca-Cola from 1886 to 1959.
20th century

The first outdoor wall advertisement that promoted the Coca-Cola drink was painted in 1894 in Cartersville, Georgia.[34] Cola syrup was sold as an over-the-counter dietary supplement for upset stomach.[35][36] By the time of its 50th anniversary, the soft drink had reached the status of a national icon in the USA. In 1935, it was certified kosher by Atlanta Rabbi Tobias Geffen, after the company made minor changes in the sourcing of some ingredients.[37]
Original framed Coca-Cola artist's drawn graphic presented by The Coca-Cola Company on July 12, 1944 to Charles Howard Candler on the occasion of Coca-Cola's "1 Billionth Gallon of Coca-Cola Syrup."
Claimed to be the first installation anywhere of the 1948 model "Boat Motor" styled Coca-Cola soda dispenser, Fleeman's Pharmacy, Atlanta, Georgia. The "Boat Motor" soda dispenser was introduced in the late 1930s and manufactured till the late 1950s. Photograph circa 1948.

The longest running commercial Coca-Cola soda fountain anywhere was Atlanta's Fleeman's Pharmacy, which first opened its doors in 1914.[38] Jack Fleeman took over the pharmacy from his father and ran it until 1995; closing it after 81 years.[39] On July 12, 1944, the one-billionth gallon of Coca-Cola syrup was manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Cans of Coke first appeared in 1955.[40]
New Coke
Main article: New Coke
The Las Vegas Strip World of Coca-Cola museum in 2003

On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola, amid much publicity, attempted to change the formula of the drink with "New Coke". Follow-up taste tests revealed most consumers preferred the taste of New Coke to both Coke and Pepsi[41] but Coca-Cola management was unprepared for the public's nostalgia for the old drink, leading to a backlash. The company gave in to protests and returned to a variation of the old formula using high fructose corn syrup instead of cane sugar as the main sweetener, under the name Coca-Cola Classic, on July 10, 1985.
21st century

On July 5, 2005, it was revealed that Coca-Cola would resume operations in Iraq for the first time since the Arab League boycotted the company in 1968.[42]

In April 2007, in Canada, the name "Coca-Cola Classic" was changed back to "Coca-Cola". The word "Classic" was removed because "New Coke" was no longer in production, eliminating the need to differentiate between the two.[43] The formula remained unchanged. In January 2009, Coca-Cola stopped printing the word "Classic" on the labels of 16-US-fluid-ounce (470 ml) bottles sold in parts of the southeastern United States.[44] The change is part of a larger strategy to rejuvenate the product's image.[44] The word "Classic" was removed from all Coca-Cola products by 2011.

In November 2009, due to a dispute over wholesale prices of Coca-Cola products, Costco stopped restocking its shelves with Coke and Diet Coke for two months; a separate pouring rights deal in 2013 saw Coke products removed from Costco food courts in favor of Pepsi.[45] Some Costco locations (such as the ones in Tucson, Arizona) additionally sell imported Coca-Cola from Mexico with cane sugar instead of corn syrup from separate distributors.[46] Coca-Cola introduced the 7.5-ounce mini-can in 2009, and on September 22, 2011, the company announced price reductions, asking retailers to sell eight-packs for $2.99. That same day, Coca-Cola announced the 12.5-ounce bottle, to sell for 89 cents. A 16-ounce bottle has sold well at 99 cents since being re-introduced, but the price was going up to $1.19.[47]

In 2012, Coca-Cola resumed business in Myanmar after 60 years of absence due to U.S.-imposed investment sanctions against the country.[48][49] Coca-Cola's bottling plant will be located in Yangon and is part of the company's five-year plan and $200 million investment in Myanmar.[50] Coca-Cola with its partners is to invest USD 5 billion in its operations in India by 2020.[51] In 2013, it was announced that Coca-Cola Life would be introduced in Argentina that would contain stevia and sugar.[52]

In August 2014 the company announced it was forming a long-term partnership with Monster Beverage, with the two forging a strategic marketing and distribution alliance, and product line swap. As part of the deal Coca-Cola was to acquire a 16.7% stake in Monster for $2.15 billion, with an option to increase it to 25%.[53]

In December 2016, Coca-Cola bought many of the former SABMiller's Coca-Cola operations.[54]

    Carbonated water
    Sugar (sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) depending on country of origin)
    Phosphoric acid
    Caramel color (E150d)
    Natural flavorings[55]

A typical can of Coca-Cola (12 fl ounces/355 ml) contains 38 grams of sugar (usually in the form of HFCS),[56] 50 mg of sodium, 0 grams fat, 0 grams potassium, and 140 calories.[57] On May 5, 2014, Coca-Cola said it is working to remove a controversial ingredient, brominated vegetable oil, from all of its drinks.[58]
Formula of natural flavorings
Main article: Coca-Cola formula

The exact formula of Coca-Cola's natural flavorings (but not its other ingredients, which are listed on the side of the bottle or can) is a trade secret. The original copy of the formula was held in SunTrust Bank's main vault in Atlanta for 86 years. Its predecessor, the Trust Company, was the underwriter for the Coca-Cola Company's initial public offering in 1919. On December 8, 2011, the original secret formula was moved from the vault at SunTrust Banks to a new vault containing the formula which will be on display for visitors to its World of Coca-Cola museum in downtown Atlanta.[59]
Coca-Cola Museum in Atlanta, Georgia

According to Snopes, a popular myth states that only two executives have access to the formula, with each executive having only half the formula.[60] However, several sources state that while Coca-Cola does have a rule restricting access to only two executives, each knows the entire formula and others, in addition to the prescribed duo, have known the formulation process.[61]

On February 11, 2011, Ira Glass said on his PRI radio show, This American Life, that TAL staffers had found a recipe in "Everett Beal's Recipe Book", reproduced in the February 28, 1979, issue of The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, that they believed was either Pemberton's original formula for Coca-Cola, or a version that he made either before or after the product hit the market in 1886. The formula basically matched the one found in Pemberton's diary.[62][63][64] Coca-Cola archivist Phil Mooney acknowledged that the recipe "could ... be a precursor" to the formula used in the original 1886 product, but emphasized that Pemberton's original formula is not the same as the one used in the current product.[65]
Use of stimulants in formula
An early Coca-Cola advertisement.

When launched, Coca-Cola's two key ingredients were cocaine and caffeine. The cocaine was derived from the coca leaf and the caffeine from kola nut, leading to the name Coca-Cola (the "K" in Kola was replaced with a "C" for marketing purposes).[66][67]
Coca – cocaine

Pemberton called for five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup, a significant dose; in 1891, Candler claimed his formula (altered extensively from Pemberton's original) contained only a tenth of this amount. Coca-Cola once contained an estimated nine milligrams of cocaine per glass. (For comparison, a typical dose or "line" of cocaine is 50–75 mg.[68]) In 1903, it was removed.[69]

After 1904, instead of using fresh leaves, Coca-Cola started using "spent" leaves – the leftovers of the cocaine-extraction process with trace levels of cocaine.[70] Since then, Coca-Cola uses a cocaine-free coca leaf extract prepared at a Stepan Company plant in Maywood, New Jersey.[71]

In the United States, the Stepan Company is the only manufacturing plant authorized by the Federal Government to import and process the coca plant,[71] which it obtains mainly from Peru and, to a lesser extent, Bolivia. Besides producing the coca flavoring agent for Coca-Cola, the Stepan Company extracts cocaine from the coca leaves, which it sells to Mallinckrodt, a St. Louis, Missouri, pharmaceutical manufacturer that is the only company in the United States licensed to purify cocaine for medicinal use.[72]

Long after the syrup had ceased to contain any significant amount of cocaine, in the southeastern U.S., "dope" remained a common colloquialism for Coca-Cola, and "dope-wagons" were trucks that transported it.[73]
Kola nuts – caffeine

Kola nuts act as a flavoring and the source of caffeine in Coca-Cola. In Britain, for example, the ingredient label states "Flavourings (Including Caffeine)."[74] Kola nuts contain about 2.0 to 3.5% caffeine, are of bitter flavor, and are commonly used in cola soft drinks. In 1911, the U.S. government initiated United States v. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola, hoping to force Coca-Cola to remove caffeine from its formula. The case was decided in favor of Coca-Cola. Subsequently, in 1912, the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act was amended, adding caffeine to the list of "habit-forming" and "deleterious" substances which must be listed on a product's label.

Coca-Cola contains 34 mg of caffeine per 12 fluid ounces (9.8 mg per 100 ml).[75]
Franchised production model

The actual production and distribution of Coca-Cola follows a franchising model. The Coca-Cola Company only produces a syrup concentrate, which it sells to bottlers throughout the world, who hold Coca-Cola franchises for one or more geographical areas. The bottlers produce the final drink by mixing the syrup with filtered water and sweeteners, and then carbonate it before putting it in cans and bottles, which the bottlers then sell and distribute to retail stores, vending machines, restaurants, and food service distributors.[76]

The Coca-Cola Company owns minority shares in some of its largest franchises, such as Coca-Cola Enterprises, Coca-Cola Amatil, Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company, and Coca-Cola FEMSA, but fully independent bottlers produce almost half of the volume sold in the world. Independent bottlers are allowed to sweeten the drink according to local tastes.[77]

The bottling plant in Skopje, Macedonia, received the 2009 award for "Best Bottling Company".[78]
Geographic spread

Since it announced its intention to begin distribution in Burma in June 2012, Coca-Cola has been officially available in every country in the world except Cuba and North Korea.[79] However, it is reported to be available in both countries as a grey import.[80][81]

Coca-Cola has been a point of legal discussion in the Middle East. In the early 20th century, a fatwa was created in Egypt to discuss the question of "whether Muslims were permitted to drink Coca-Cola and Pepsi cola."[82] The fatwa states: "According to the Muslim Hanefite, Shafi'ite, etc., the rule in Islamic law of forbidding or allowing foods and beverages is based on the presumption that such things are permitted unless it can be shown that they are forbidden on the basis of the Qur'an."[82] The Muslim jurists stated that, unless the Qu'ran specifically prohibits the consumption of a particular product, it is permissible to consume. Another clause was discussed, whereby the same rules apply if a person is unaware of the condition or ingredients of the item in question.
Brand portfolio

This is a list of variants of Coca-Cola introduced around the world. In addition to the caffeine-free version of the original, additional fruit flavors have been included over the years. Not included here are versions of Diet Coke and Coca-Cola Zero; variant versions of those no-calorie colas can be found at their respective articles.

    Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola (1983–present) – Coca-Cola without the Caffeine.
    Coca-Cola Cherry (1985–present) – Coca-Cola with a Cherry Flavor. Was available in Canada starting in 1996. Called "Cherry Coca-Cola (Cherry Coke)" in North America until 2006.
    New Coke / Coca-Cola II (1985–2002) - A short-lived formula change, remained after the original formula returned and was later rebranded as Coca-Cola II.
    Coca-Cola with Lemon (2001–05) – Coca-Cola with a Lemon flavor. Available in: Australia, American Samoa, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Denmark, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Iceland, Korea, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Réunion, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States, and West Bank-Gaza
    Coca-Cola Vanilla (2002–05; 2007–present) – Coca-Cola with a Vanilla flavor. Available in: Austria, Australia, China, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Malaysia, Slovakia, South-Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States. It was reintroduced in June 2007 by popular demand.
    Coca-Cola with Lime (2005–present) – Coca-Cola with a Lime flavor. Available in Belgium, Netherlands, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
    Coca-Cola Raspberry (2005) – Coca-Cola with a Raspberry flavor. Was only available in New Zealand. Currently available in the United States and the United Kingdom in Coca-Cola Freestyle fountain since 2009.
    Coca-Cola Black Cherry Vanilla (2006–07) – Coca-Cola with a combination of Black Cherry and Vanilla flavor. It replaced and was replaced by Vanilla Coke in June 2007.
    Coca-Cola Blāk (2006–08) – Coca-Cola with a rich coffee flavor, formula depends on country. Only available in the United States, France, Canada, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, and Lithuania
    Coca-Cola Citra (2005–present) – Coca-Cola with a citrus flavor. Only available in Bosnia and Herzegovina, New Zealand, and Japan.
    Coca-Cola Orange (2007) – Coca-Cola with an orange flavor. Was available in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar for a limited time. In Germany, Austria, and Switzerland it is sold under the label Mezzo Mix. Currently available in Coca-Cola Freestyle fountain outlets in the United States since 2009 and in the United Kingdom since 2014.
    Coca-Cola Life (2013–present) – A version of Coca-Cola with stevia and sugar as sweeteners rather than just simply sugar.
    Coca-Cola Ginger (2016–present) – A version that mixes in the taste of ginger beer. Only available in Australia and New Zealand.

Logo design

The Coca-Cola logo was created by John Pemberton's bookkeeper, Frank Mason Robinson, in 1885.[83] Robinson came up with the name and chose the logo's distinctive cursive script. The writing style used, known as Spencerian script, was developed in the mid-19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period.

Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising. His promotional suggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons and plastering the city of Atlanta with publicity banners and streetcar signs.[84]
Contour bottle design
"Coke bottle" redirects here. For the song, see Coke Bottle (song).

The Coca-Cola bottle, called the "contour bottle" within the company, was created by bottle designer Earl R. Dean. In 1915, The Coca-Cola Company launched a competition among its bottle suppliers to create a new bottle for their beverage that would distinguish it from other beverage bottles, "a bottle which a person could recognize even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was."[85]

Chapman J. Root, president of the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, turned the project over to members of his supervisory staff, including company auditor T. Clyde Edwards, plant superintendent Alexander Samuelsson, and Earl R. Dean, bottle designer and supervisor of the bottle molding room. Root and his subordinates decided to base the bottle's design on one of the soda's two ingredients, the coca leaf or the kola nut, but were unaware of what either ingredient looked like. Dean and Edwards went to the Emeline Fairbanks Memorial Library and were unable to find any information about coca or kola. Instead, Dean was inspired by a picture of the gourd-shaped cocoa pod in the Encyclopædia Britannica. Dean made a rough sketch of the pod and returned to the plant to show Root. He explained to Root how he could transform the shape of the pod into a bottle. Root gave Dean his approval.[85]

Faced with the upcoming scheduled maintenance of the mold-making machinery, over the next 24 hours Dean sketched out a concept drawing which was approved by Root the next morning. Dean then proceeded to create a bottle mold and produced a small number of bottles before the glass-molding machinery was turned off.[86]

Chapman Root approved the prototype bottle and a design patent was issued on the bottle in November 1915. The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts. Dean resolved this issue by decreasing the bottle's middle diameter. During the 1916 bottler's convention, Dean's contour bottle was chosen over other entries and was on the market the same year. By 1920, the contour bottle became the standard for The Coca-Cola Company. A revised version was also patented in 1923. Because the Patent Office releases the Patent Gazette on Tuesday, the bottle was patented on December 25, 1923, and was nicknamed the "Christmas bottle." Today, the contour Coca-Cola bottle is one of the most recognized packages on the planet..."even in the dark!".[33]

As a reward for his efforts, Dean was offered a choice between a $500 bonus or a lifetime job at the Root Glass Company. He chose the lifetime job and kept it until the Owens-Illinois Glass Company bought out the Root Glass Company in the mid-1930s. Dean went on to work in other Midwestern glass factories.[citation needed]

One alternative depiction has Raymond Loewy as the inventor of the unique design, but, while Loewy did serve as a designer of Coke cans and bottles in later years, he was in the French Army the year the bottle was invented and did not emigrate to the United States until 1919. Others have attributed inspiration for the design not to the cocoa pod, but to a Victorian hooped dress.[87]

In 1944, Associate Justice Roger J. Traynor of the Supreme Court of California took advantage of a case involving a waitress injured by an exploding Coca-Cola bottle to articulate the doctrine of strict liability for defective products. Traynor's concurring opinion in Escola v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co. is widely recognized as a landmark case in U.S. law today.[88]

    Earl R. Dean's original 1915 concept drawing of the contour Coca-Cola bottle

    The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts.

    Final production version with slimmer middle section.

Designer bottles

Karl Lagerfeld is the latest designer to have created a collection of aluminum bottles for Coca-Cola. Lagerfeld is not the first fashion designer to create a special version of the famous Coca-Cola Contour bottle. A number of other limited edition bottles by fashion designers for Coca-Cola Light soda have been created in the last few years.

In 2009, in Italy, Coca-Cola Light had a Tribute to Fashion to celebrate 100 years of the recognizable contour bottle. Well known Italian designers Alberta Ferretti, Blumarine, Etro, Fendi, Marni, Missoni, Moschino, and Versace each designed limited edition bottles.[89]

Pepsi, the flagship product of PepsiCo, The Coca-Cola Company's main rival in the soft drink industry, is usually second to Coke in sales, and outsells Coca-Cola in some markets. RC Cola, now owned by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group, the third largest soft drink manufacturer, is also widely available.[citation needed]

Around the world, many local brands compete with Coke. In South and Central America Kola Real, known as Big Cola in Mexico, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola.[90] On the French island of Corsica, Corsica Cola, made by brewers of the local Pietra beer, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. In the French region of Brittany, Breizh Cola is available. In Peru, Inca Kola outsells Coca-Cola, which led The Coca-Cola Company to purchase the brand in 1999. In Sweden, Julmust outsells Coca-Cola during the Christmas season.[91] In Scotland, the locally produced Irn-Bru was more popular than Coca-Cola until 2005, when Coca-Cola and Diet Coke began to outpace its sales.[92] In the former East Germany, Vita Cola, invented during Communist rule, is gaining popularity.

In India, Coca-Cola ranked third behind the leader, Pepsi-Cola, and local drink Thums Up. The Coca-Cola Company purchased Thums Up in 1993.[93] As of 2004, Coca-Cola held a 60.9% market-share in India.[94] Tropicola, a domestic drink, is served in Cuba instead of Coca-Cola, due to a United States embargo. French brand Mecca Cola and British brand Qibla Cola are competitors to Coca-Cola in the Middle East.[citation needed]

In Turkey, Cola Turka, in Iran and the Middle East, Zamzam Cola and Parsi Cola, in some parts of China, China Cola, in Slovenia, Cockta, and the inexpensive Mercator Cola, sold only in the country's biggest supermarket chain, Mercator, are some of the brand's competitors. Classiko Cola, made by Tiko Group, the largest manufacturing company in Madagascar, is a serious competitor to Coca-Cola in many regions. Laranjada is the top-selling soft drink on Madeira.[citation needed]
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See also: Coca-Cola slogans
An 1890s advertisement showing model Hilda Clark in formal 19th-century attire. The ad is titled Drink Coca-Cola 5¢. (US).
Coca-Cola ghost sign in Fort Dodge, Iowa. Older Coca-Cola ghosts behind Borax and telephone ads. April 2008.
Coca-Cola delivery truck of Argentina, with the slogan "Drink Coca-Cola – delicious, refreshing".

Coca-Cola's advertising has significantly affected American culture, and it is frequently credited with inventing the modern image of Santa Claus as an old man in a red-and-white suit. Although the company did start using the red-and-white Santa image in the 1930s, with its winter advertising campaigns illustrated by Haddon Sundblom, the motif was already common.[95][96] Coca-Cola was not even the first soft drink company to use the modern image of Santa Claus in its advertising: White Rock Beverages used Santa in advertisements for its ginger ale in 1923, after first using him to sell mineral water in 1915.[97][98] Before Santa Claus, Coca-Cola relied on images of smartly dressed young women to sell its beverages. Coca-Cola's first such advertisement appeared in 1895, featuring the young Bostonian actress Hilda Clark as its spokeswoman.

1941 saw the first use of the nickname "Coke" as an official trademark for the product, with a series of advertisements informing consumers that "Coke means Coca-Cola".[99] In 1971 a song from a Coca-Cola commercial called "I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing", produced by Billy Davis, became a hit single.
The typeface You 2 that was created for the "Share a Coke" campaign
Coca-Cola sales booth on the Cape Verde island of Fogo in 2004.
Coke advertisement in Budapest, 2013.

Coke's advertising is pervasive, as one of Woodruff's stated goals was to ensure that everyone on Earth drank Coca-Cola as their preferred beverage. This is especially true in southern areas of the United States, such as Atlanta, where Coke was born.

Some Coca-Cola television commercials between 1960 through 1986 were written and produced by former Atlanta radio veteran Don Naylor (WGST 1936–1950, WAGA 1951–1959) during his career as a producer for the McCann Erickson advertising agency. Many of these early television commercials for Coca-Cola featured movie stars, sports heroes, and popular singers.

During the 1980s, Pepsi-Cola ran a series of television advertisements showing people participating in taste tests demonstrating that, according to the commercials, "fifty percent of the participants who said they preferred Coke actually chose the Pepsi." Statisticians pointed out the problematic nature of a 50/50 result: most likely, the taste tests showed that in blind tests, most people cannot tell the difference between Pepsi and Coke. Coca-Cola ran ads to combat Pepsi's ads in an incident sometimes referred to as the cola wars; one of Coke's ads compared the so-called Pepsi challenge to two chimpanzees deciding which tennis ball was furrier. Thereafter, Coca-Cola regained its leadership in the market.

Selena was a spokesperson for Coca-Cola from 1989 until the time of her death. She filmed three commercials for the company. During 1994, to commemorate her five years with the company, Coca-Cola issued special Selena coke bottles.[100]

The Coca-Cola Company purchased Columbia Pictures in 1982, and began inserting Coke-product images into many of its films. After a few early successes during Coca-Cola's ownership, Columbia began to under-perform, and the studio was sold to Sony in 1989.

Coca-Cola has gone through a number of different advertising slogans in its long history, including "The pause that refreshes", "I'd like to buy the world a Coke", and "Coke is it".

In 2006, Coca-Cola introduced My Coke Rewards, a customer loyalty campaign where consumers earn points by entering codes from specially marked packages of Coca-Cola products into a website. These points can be redeemed for various prizes or sweepstakes entries.[101]

In Australia in 2011, Coca-Cola began the "share a Coke" campaign, where the Coca-Cola logo was replaced on the bottles and replaced with first names. Coca-Cola used the 150 most popular names in Australia to print on the bottles.[102][103][104] The campaign was paired with a website page, Facebook page, and an online "share a virtual Coke". The same campaign was introduced to Coca-Cola, Diet Coke & Coke Zero bottles and cans in the UK in 2013.[105][106]

Coca-Cola has also advertised its product to be consumed as a breakfast beverage, instead of coffee or tea for the morning caffeine.[107][108]
5 cents
Main article: The fixed price of Coca-Cola from 1886 to 1959

From 1886 to 1959, the price of Coca-Cola was fixed at five cents, in part due to an advertising campaign.
Holiday campaigns
A Freightliner Coca-Cola Christmas truck in Dresden, Germany, 2004.

The "Holidays are coming!" advertisement features a train of red delivery trucks, emblazoned with the Coca-Cola name and decorated with Christmas lights, driving through a snowy landscape and causing everything that they pass to light up and people to watch as they pass through.[109]

The advertisement fell into disuse in 2001, as the Coca-Cola company restructured its advertising campaigns so that advertising around the world was produced locally in each country, rather than centrally in the company's headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.[110] In 2007, the company brought back the campaign after, according to the company, many consumers telephoned its information center saying that they considered it to mark the beginning of Christmas.[109] The advertisement was created by U.S. advertising agency Doner, and has been part of the company's global advertising campaign for many years.[111]

Keith Law, a producer and writer of commercials for Belfast CityBeat, was not convinced by Coca-Cola's reintroduction of the advertisement in 2007, saying that "I don't think there's anything Christmassy about HGVs and the commercial is too generic."[112]

In 2001, singer Melanie Thornton recorded the campaign's advertising jingle as a single, Wonderful Dream (Holidays are Coming), which entered the pop-music charts in Germany at no. 9.[113][114] In 2005, Coca-Cola expanded the advertising campaign to radio, employing several variations of the jingle.[115]

In 2011, Coca-Cola launched a campaign for the Indian holiday Diwali. The campaign included commercials, a song, and an integration with Shah Rukh Khan's film Ra.One.[116][117][118]
Sports sponsorship

Coca-Cola was the first commercial sponsor of the Olympic games, at the 1928 games in Amsterdam, and has been an Olympics sponsor ever since.[119] This corporate sponsorship included the 1996 Summer Olympics hosted in Atlanta, which allowed Coca-Cola to spotlight its hometown. Most recently, Coca-Cola has released localized commercials for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver; one Canadian commercial referred to Canada's hockey heritage and was modified after Canada won the gold medal game on February 28, 2010 by changing the ending line of the commercial to say "Now they know whose game they're playing".[120]

Since 1978, Coca-Cola has sponsored the FIFA World Cup, and other competitions organized by FIFA.[121] One FIFA tournament trophy, the FIFA World Youth Championship from Tunisia in 1977 to Malaysia in 1997, was called "FIFA — Coca-Cola Cup". In addition, Coca-Cola sponsors the annual Coca-Cola 600 and Coke Zero 400 for the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series at Charlotte Motor Speedway in Concord, North Carolina and Daytona International Speedway in Daytona, Florida.

Coca-Cola has a long history of sports marketing relationships, which over the years have included Major League Baseball, the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, and the National Hockey League, as well as with many teams within those leagues. Coca-Cola has had a longtime relationship with the NFL's Pittsburgh Steelers, due in part to the now-famous 1979 television commercial featuring "Mean Joe" Greene, leading to the two opening the Coca-Cola Great Hall at Heinz Field in 2001 and a more recent Coca-Cola Zero commercial featuring Troy Polamalu.

Coca-Cola is the official soft drink of many collegiate football teams throughout the nation, partly due to Coca-Cola providing those schools with upgraded athletic facilities in exchange for Coca-Cola's sponsorship. This is especially prevalent at the high school level, which is more dependent on such contracts due to tighter budgets.

Coca-Cola was one of the official sponsors of the 1996 Cricket World Cup held on the Indian subcontinent. Coca-Cola is also one of the associate sponsor of Delhi Daredevils in Indian Premier League.

In England, Coca-Cola was the main sponsor of The Football League between 2004 and 2010, a name given to the three professional divisions below the Premier League in soccer (football). In 2005, Coca-Cola launched a competition for the 72 clubs of The Football League — it was called "Win a Player". This allowed fans to place one vote per day for their favorite club, with one entry being chosen at random earning £250,000 for the club; this was repeated in 2006. The "Win A Player" competition was very controversial, as at the end of the 2 competitions, Leeds United A.F.C. had the most votes by more than double, yet they did not win any money to spend on a new player for the club. In 2007, the competition changed to "Buy a Player". This competition allowed fans to buy a bottle of Coca-Cola or Coca-Cola Zero and submit the code on the wrapper on the Coca-Cola website. This code could then earn anything from 50p to £100,000 for a club of their choice. This competition was favored over the old "Win a Player" competition, as it allowed all clubs to win some money. Between 1992 and 1998, Coca-Cola was the title sponsor of the Football League Cup (Coca-Cola Cup), the secondary cup tournament of England.

Between 1994 and 1997, Coca-Cola was also the title sponsor of the Scottish League Cup, renaming it the Coca-Cola Cup like its English counterpart. From 1998 to 2001, the company were the title sponsor of the Irish League Cup in Northern Ireland, where it was named the Coca-Cola League Cup.

Coca-Cola is the presenting sponsor of the Tour Championship, the final event of the PGA Tour held each year at East Lake Golf Club in Atlanta, GA.[122]

Introduced March 1, 2010, in Canada, to celebrate the 2010 Winter Olympics, Coca-Cola sold gold colored cans in packs of 12 355 mL (12 imp fl oz; 12 US fl oz) each, in select stores.[123]

In 2012, Coca-Cola (Philippines) hosted/sponsored the Coca-Cola PBA Youngstars in the Philippines.
In mass media
Coca-Cola advertised on a Volkswagen T2 in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, 2012.

Coca-Cola has been prominently featured in countless films and television programs. Since its creation, it remains as one of the most prominent elements of the popular culture.[citation needed] It was a major plot element in films such as One, Two, Three, The Coca-Cola Kid, and The Gods Must Be Crazy, among many others. It provides a setting for comical corporate shenanigans in the novel Syrup by Maxx Barry. In music, in the Beatles' song, "Come Together", the lyrics say, "He shoot Coca-Cola, he say...". The Beach Boys also referenced Coca-Cola in their 1964 song "All Summer Long" (i.e. "'Member when you spilled Coke all over your blouse?")[124]

The best selling artist of all time and worldwide cultural icon,[125] Elvis Presley, promoted Coca-Cola during his last tour of 1977.[126] The Coca-Cola Company used Elvis' image to promote the product.[127] For example, the company used a song performed by Presley, A Little Less Conversation, in a Japanese Coca-Cola commercial.[128]

Other artists that promoted Coca-Cola include the Beatles, David Bowie,[129] George Michael,[130] Elton John,[131] and Whitney Houston,[132] who appeared in the Diet Coca-Cola commercial, among many others.

Not all musical references to Coca-Cola went well. A line in "Lola" by the Kinks was originally recorded as "You drink champagne and it tastes just like Coca-Cola." When the British Broadcasting Corporation refused to play the song because of the commercial reference, lead singer Ray Davies re-recorded the lyric as "it tastes just like cherry cola" to get airplay for the song.[133]

Political cartoonist Michel Kichka satirized a famous Coca-Cola billboard in his 1982 poster "And I Love New York." On the billboard, the Coca-Cola wave is accompanied by the words "Enjoy Coke." In Kichka's poster, the lettering and script above the Coca-Cola wave instead read "Enjoy Cocaine."[134]
Medicinal application

Coca-Cola is sometimes used for the treatment of gastric phytobezoars. In about 50% of cases studied, Coca-Cola alone was found to be effective in gastric phytobezoar dissolution. Unfortunately, this treatment can result in the potential of developing small bowel obstruction in a minority of cases, necessitating surgical intervention.[135][136]
Main article: Criticism of Coca-Cola

Criticism of Coca-Cola has arisen from various groups, concerning a variety of issues, including health effects, environmental issues, and business practices. The Coca-Cola Company, its subsidiaries and products have been subject to sustained criticism by both consumer groups, leftist activists, and watchdogs, particularly since the early 2000s.[citation needed]

Coca-Cola is rich in sugar, especially sucrose, which causes dental caries when consumed regularly. Besides this, the high caloric value contributes to obesity. Both are major health issues in the developed world.[citation needed]
Colombian death-squad allegations

In July 2001, the Coca-Cola company was sued over its alleged use of political far-right wing death squads (the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia) to kidnap, torture, and kill Colombian bottler workers that were linked with trade union activity. Coca-Cola was sued in a US federal court in Miami by the Colombian food and drink union Sinaltrainal. The suit alleged that Coca-Cola was indirectly responsible for having "contracted with or otherwise directed paramilitary security forces that utilized extreme violence and murdered, tortured, unlawfully detained or otherwise silenced trade union leaders". This sparked campaigns to boycott Coca-Cola in the UK, US, Germany, Italy, and Australia.[137][138] Javier Correa, the president of Sinaltrainal, said the campaign aimed to put pressure on Coca-Cola "to mitigate the pain and suffering" that union members had suffered.[138]

Speaking from the Coca-Cola company's headquarters in Atlanta, company spokesperson Rafael Fernandez Quiros said "Coca-Cola denies any connection to any human-rights violation of this type" and added "We do not own or operate the plants".[139]

A documentary on the controversy, titled The Coca-Cola Case, was released in 2010.[140]
Use as political and corporate symbol
As sold in China
Astronauts served Coca-Cola from this device on the Space Shuttle in 1995.

Coca-Cola has a high degree of identification with the United States, being considered by some an "American Brand" or as an item representing America. During World War II, this gave rise to brief production of the White Coke as a neutral brand.[141] The drink is also often a metonym for the Coca-Cola Company.

Coca-Cola was introduced to China in 1927, and was very popular until 1949. When the Cultural Revolution began in 1949, the beverage was no longer imported into China, as it was perceived to be a symbol of decadent Western culture and the capitalist lifestyle. Importation and sales of the beverage resumed in 1979, after diplomatic relations between the United States and China were restored.[142]

There are some consumer boycotts of Coca-Cola in Arab countries due to Coke's early investment in Israel during the Arab League boycott of Israel (its competitor Pepsi stayed out of Israel).[143] Mecca Cola and Pepsi have been successful[vague] alternatives in the Middle East.[144]

A Coca-Cola fountain dispenser (officially a Fluids Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus or FGBA) was developed for use on the Space Shuttle as a test bed to determine if carbonated beverages can be produced from separately stored carbon dioxide, water, and flavored syrups and determine if the resulting fluids can be made available for consumption without bubble nucleation and resulting foam formation. FGBA-1 flew on STS-63 in 1995 and dispensed pre-mixed beverages, followed by FGBA-2 on STS-77 the next year. The latter mixed CO₂, water, and syrup to make beverages. It supplied 1.65 liters each of Coca-Cola and Diet Coke.[145][146]
Social causes

In 2012, Coca-Cola was listed as a partner of the (RED) campaign, together with other brands such as Nike, Girl, American Express, and Converse. The campaign's mission is to prevent the transmission of the HIV virus from mother to child by 2015 (the campaign's byline is "Fighting For An AIDS Free Generation").[147]
See also

    iconFood portal Drink portal flagUnited States portal flagGeorgia (U.S. state) portal iconAtlanta portal

    Coca-Cola HBC AG
    Coca-Cola treatment of phytobezoars
    Coca Colla
    List of Coca-Cola brands
    Mexican Coke
    OpenCola (drink)
    Premix and postmix


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"Offices & Bottling Plants". Archived from the original on February 16, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
"What Is the Difference Between Coca-Cola Enterprises and the Coca-Cola Company". Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
"Coca Cola: Macedonia makes the best Coke". June 16, 2009. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
Stafford, Leon (September 9, 2012). "Coca-Cola to spend $30 billion to grow globally". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
Will Weissert (May 15, 2007). "Cuba stocks US brands despite embargo". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
Julian Ryall (August 31, 2012). "Coca-Cola denies 'cracking' North Korea". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
Liebesny, Herbert J. (1975). The law of the Near and Middle East readings, cases, and materials. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 42–43.
"Coca Cola Company — Red Spencerian Script". Archived from the original on January 18, 2010.
"Frank Robinson, creator of the Coca-Cola logo". Retrieved December 15, 2008.
"Inventory: Earl R. Dean Collection". Vigo County Public Library. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
Lundy, Betty (1986). The Bottle (PDF). American Heritage Inc. pp. 98–101. ISSN 0002-8738.
"Snopes urban legend of the Coca-Cola bottle shape". Retrieved March 13, 2011.
See, e.g., Lawrence M. Friedman, American Law in the 20th century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), 356–357, and Jay M. Feinman, Law 101: Everything You Need to Know About the American Legal System, rev. ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 165–168.
"Coca-Cola Light Gets Dressed By Another Designer, Karl Lagerfeld". Retrieved May 14, 2011.
Mireles, Ricardo. "In Mexico, Big Cola is the real thing". Logistics Today. Archived from the original on November 9, 2004.
""About Kristall Beverage"". Archived from the original on December 19, 2003. Retrieved January 31, 2006.. Retrieved June 14, 2006. Archived December 19, 2003.
Murden, Terry (January 30, 2005). Coke adds life to health drinks sector[permanent dead link]. Scotland on Sunday. Retrieved February 14, 2006.
Kripalani, Manjeet and Mark L. Clifford (February 10, 2003) "Finally, Coke Gets It Right in India" Archived February 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. BusinessWeek. Retrieved August 9, 2006.
"Fizzical Facts: Coke claims 60% mkt share in India", Times News Network, August 5, 2005 Archived July 10, 2007, at WebCite
Barbara Mikkelson and David P. Mikkelson, "The Claus That Refreshes,", February 27, 2001 . Retrieved June 10, 2005. Archived July 10, 2007, at WebCite
See George McKay 'Consumption, Coca-colonisation, cultural resistance—and Santa Claus', in Sheila Whiteley, ed. (2008) Christmas, Ideology and Popular Culture. Edinburgh University Press, pp. 50–70.
The White Rock Collectors Association, "Did White Rock or The Coca-Cola Company create the modern Santa Claus Advertisement?,", 2001 . Retrieved January 19, 2007.
White Rock Beverages, "Coca-Cola's Santa Claus: Not The Real Thing!,", December 18, 2006 . Retrieved January 19, 2007. Archived July 10, 2007, at WebCite
"Coke means Coca-Cola". Coca-Cola Conversations. June 16, 2008. Archived from the original on February 26, 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
Orozco, Cynthia E. Quintanilla Perez, Selena. The Handbook of Texas online. Retrieved on June 5, 2006
My Coke Rewards (Official Site)
Jessica Burke (September 26, 2011). "Sharing your Coke: marketing genius or just entirely weird?". Retrieved February 23, 2013.
"What's in a Name?". October 25, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
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"Coca‑Cola Bottles History". London, UK: Coca-Cola GB. 2013. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
"Share a Coke: Is your name on the list?". The Belfast Telegraph. Belfast, UK: Independent News & Media. May 27, 2013. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
"A Morning Cola Instead of Coffee?". The New York Times. January 20, 1988. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
McGrath, Karen (November 30, 1987). "Soft drink for breakfast could be your cup of tea". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
Nikki Sandison (November 16, 2007). "Coca-Cola revives popular 'holidays are coming' ad". Brand Republic.
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"The Coca-Cola Challenge". Campaign. October 22, 2004.
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Prentiss Findlay (December 7, 2001). "Charleston native Thornton to be buried on Saturday.". The Post and Courier. Charleston, SC.
Nicola Clark (November 29, 2005). "Coca-Cola restructures in healthy drinks focus". Brand Republic. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011.
"Coca-Cola launches its Diwali campaign « Best Media Info, News and Analysis on Indian Advertising, Marketing and Media Industry". October 13, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
"Coca-Cola Diwali!". YouTube. November 12, 2010. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
Pia Heikkila (May 25, 2010). "From Bollywood to the world". The National. Archived from the original on July 21, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
"Coca-Cola". Olympic Movement. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
"YouTube Post of Coca-Cola 2010 Olympic Hockey Commercial". Retrieved March 2, 2010. "FIFA Partners -". Retrieved 2017-08-19.
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"All Summer Long Lyrics – Beach Boys". Retrieved April 23, 2012.
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"Coca Cola celebrates 125th anniversary with 'Elvis and Coke'". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
"Elvis Music In Japanese Coca-Cola Commercial – Misc". Retrieved April 23, 2012.
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Iwamuro M.; Okada H.; Matsueda K.; Inaba T.; Kusumoto C.; Imagawa A.; Yamamoto K. (2015). "Review of the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal bezoars". World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 7 (4): 336–345. doi:10.4253/wjge.v7.i4.336.
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Coca Cola's Role in the Assassinations of Union Leaders Explored in Powerful New Documentary. Alternet. April 22, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
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    "(RED) Partners". (RED). The ONE Campaign. 2012. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved October 14, 2012.

Further reading

    Allen, Frederick. Secret Formula: How Brilliant Marketing and Relentless Salesmanship Made Coca-Cola the Best-Known Product in the World. New York: Harper Business, 1994.
    Blanding, Michael. The Coke Machine: The Dirty Truth Behind the World's Favorite Soft Drink. New York: Avery, 2010.
    Elmore, Bartow J. "Citizen Coke: An Environmental and Political History of the Coca-Cola Company," Enterprise & Society (2013) 14#4 pp 717–731 online
    Foster, Robert (2008). Coca-Globalization: Following Soft Drinks from New York to New Guinea. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Hamblin, James (January 31, 2013). "Why We Took Cocaine Out of Soda". The Atlantic. "When cocaine and alcohol meet inside a person, they create a third unique drug called cocaethylene."
    Hays, Constance L. The Real Thing: Truth and Power at the Coca-Cola Company. New York: Random House, 2004.
    Kahn, Ely J., Jr. The Big Drink: The Story of Coca-Cola. New York: Random House, 1960.
    Louis, Jill Chen and Harvey Z. Yazijian. The Cola Wars. New York: Everest House Publishers, 1980.
    Oliver, Thomas. The Real Coke, The Real Story. New York: Random House, 1986.
    Pendergrast, Mark. For God, Country, and Coca-Cola: The Unauthorized History of the Great American Soft Drink And the Company That Makes It. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

Primary sources

    Isdell, Neville. Inside Coca-Cola: A CEO's Life Story of Building the World's Most Popular Brand. With the assistance of David Beasley. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2011

External links
   Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coca-Cola.

    Official website
    Kinescope of a live 1954 TV commercial for Coca-Cola (Internet Archive)
    Coca-Cola Advertising History
    Coca-Cola: Refreshing Memories — slideshow by Life magazine
    China Advisory: Avoiding the Wax Tadpole – Effective Chinese Language Trademark Strategy Chinese language trademark for Coca-Cola


    v t e

Varieties of Coca-Cola

    v t e

The Coca-Cola Company

    v t e

Cola brands
Authority control    

    GND: 4125197-0


    Coca-ColaProducts introduced in 1886American drinksAmerican inventionsCola brandsCoca-Cola brandsKosher foodPatent medicines

The Flood / but more importantly does the pap gay exist
« on: August 03, 2017, 07:40:23 PM »
Ri Bhoi (IPA: ˌrɪ ˈbɔɪ) is an administrative district in the state of Meghalaya in India. The district headquarters are located at Nongpoh. The district occupies an area of 2378 km² and has a population of 192,795 (as of 2001). As of 2011 it is the second least populous district of Meghalaya (out of 7), after South Garo Hills.[1]


    1 History
    2 Geography
        2.1 Flora and fauna
    3 Economy
    4 Administration
        4.1 Administrative divisions
    5 Transport
    6 Demographics
        6.1 Population
        6.2 Languages
    7 References
    8 External links


The district was upgraded from subdivisional level to a full-fledged district on 4 June 1992. The new District, was carved out from East Khasi Hills.

The District lies between 90°55’15 to 91°16’ latitude and 25°40’ to 25°21’ longitude. It is bounded on the north by Kamrup District and on the East by Jaintia Hills and Karbi Anglong District of Assam and on the West by West Khasi Hills District. There are three C and RD Blocks and one administrative unit at Patharkhmah, and the number of villages is 561. Ri Bhoi District covers an area of 2448 km².

The headquarters of the District is at Nongpoh located at 53 km away from the state capital Shillong and 50 km from Guwahati. This District is characterized by rugged and irregular land surface. It includes a series of hill ranges which gradually sloped towards the north and finally joins the Brahmaputra Valley. The important rivers flowing through this region includes the Umtrew, Umsiang, Umran and Umiam rivers.
Flora and fauna

In 1981 Ri-Bhoi district became home to the Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, which has an area of 29 km2 (11.2 sq mi).[2]

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Ri-Bhoi one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[3] It is one of the three districts in Meghalaya currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[3]
Administrative divisions

Ri-Bhoi district is divided into three blocks:[4]
Name    Headquarters    Population    Location
Jirang    Wahsynon       
Ri-Bhoi Subdivisions Jirang.png
Umling    Nongpoh       
Ri-Bhoi Subdivisions Umling.png
Umsning    Umsning       
Ri-Bhoi Subdivisions Umsning.png

The region is still poor in transport and communication facilities. The National Highway No.37 origination from Jorabat to Shillong passes through the District.

Khasi people form the majority of Ri Bhoi District population about 85%, while rest are Nepalis 9%, 4% Biharis, 1% Muslim's and 1% other tribes. According to the 2011 census Ri-Bhoi district has a population of 258,380,[1] roughly equal to the nation of Vanuatu.[5] This gives it a ranking of 580th in India (out of a total of 640).[1] The district has a population density of 109 inhabitants per square kilometre (280/sq mi) .[1] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 34.02%.[1] Ri Bhoi has a sex ratio of 951 females for every 1000 males,[1] and a literacy rate of 77.22%.[1]

The main Language spoken in Ribhoi is Karew which is its native spoken language. It is more popularly known to other people as the Bhoi language. Languages used in the district include Amri, a Tibeto-Burman language related with Karbi, with 125 000 speakers and Tiwa (Lalung) language related to Tiwa Tribe people.[6]

"District Census 2011". 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: Meghalaya". Retrieved September 25, 2011.
Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
Meghalaya Administrative Divisions (PDF) (Map). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, New Delhi, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Vanuatu 224,564 July 2011 est."

    M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Amri Karbi: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2011-09-28.

External links

    Ri Bhoi district website

‹ The template below (Geographic location) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›
      Morigaon district, Assam       
Darrang District, Assam       Karbi Anglong district, Assam
     Ri-Bhoi district      
West Khasi Hills    East Khasi Hills    Jaintia Hills

    v t e

Seal of Meghalaya.svg Meghalaya
Capital: Shillong

    East Garo Hills East Jaintia Hills East Khasi Hills North Garo Hills Ri-Bhoi South Garo Hills South West Garo Hills South West Khasi Hills West Garo Hills West Jaintia Hills West Khasi Hills


    Baghmara Jowai Mairang Nongpoh Nongstoin Resubelpara Shillong Sohra/Cherrapunji Tura Williamnagar


    Economy Education Government of Meghalaya Meghalaya Legislative Assembly Northeast India Seven Sister States

    Portal: India

Coordinates: 25°54′N 91°53′E

    1992 establishments in IndiaDistricts of MeghalayaRi-Bhoi districtDistricts of IndiaAutonomous regions of India

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The Flood / attn
« on: July 28, 2017, 05:49:21 PM »
what does attn mean

Gaming / Street Fighter V or Blazblue Centralfiction
« on: July 22, 2017, 02:29:41 AM »
Gib rec pajeet

Gaming / DOOM Update 6.66 Adds All Multiplayer DLC For Free (34gB)
« on: July 20, 2017, 12:12:11 AM »
What is DOOM Update 6.66?

Update 6.66 brings substantial changes to the game’s multiplayer, with a revised progression system, new rune system for loadouts, enhanced kill notifications and bug fixes. In addition to these improvements, we’re upgrading all existing players’ content to include all multiplayer DLC.

Is all the DLC free with Update 6.66?

Yes, the multiplayer DLC is now bundled into the core DOOM game for free, producing the definitive DOOM experience. All of the DLC maps, weapons, armor sets and demons will be available for all players to enjoy.
Hope nobody bought the $40 Season Pass.

Gaming / 🤔Destiny🤔2🤔Beta🤔Thread🤔
« on: July 17, 2017, 11:28:57 PM »

The Flood / If one were to travel to the UK
« on: July 17, 2017, 01:21:53 AM »
What would be the best city to stay in (for sightseeing and cost), and what are some must-sees?

The Flood / comfy night
« on: July 16, 2017, 11:50:58 PM »
candle-lit shower
smooth legs
glass of bourbon
new girl on netflix
under blanket on comfy futon

Gaming / Steam Sale Damage Report
« on: July 04, 2017, 06:21:38 PM »
Divinity: Original Sin Enhanced Edition
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The Flood / Day Ruined
« on: June 29, 2017, 06:04:06 PM »
Warped Tour got rained out

Friends didn't want to stay

Missed Hawthorne Heights


The Flood / you: I saw it
« on: June 27, 2017, 12:27:24 AM »
Me, an intellectual: sawt'm'st've

The Flood / What do you think?
« on: June 18, 2017, 04:00:08 PM »
Pretty interesting, right?

The Flood / Birb afraid of spinach
« on: June 17, 2017, 05:42:57 PM »

Birb 1 Veganism 0

It paid well, they appreciated him, and he was essentially the stud of the office. Discuss.

The Flood / AMA What do you think of me
« on: June 11, 2017, 01:08:45 AM »
And anyone else who posts in this thread

also questions

The Flood / AMA "In The Air Tonight" isn't about a guy that drowned
« on: June 08, 2017, 01:57:17 AM »
"This song has become a stone around my neck, though I do love it. I wrote it after my wife left me. Genesis had done a tour that was far too long. She said to me, "We won't be together if you do the next tour." I said, "I'm a musician. I have to go away and play. Just hold your breath when I'm over there." Then Genesis toured Japan. When I got back, she said she was leaving and taking the kids.

At the time, Genesis had decided to change things up a bit, maybe rattle our cages. The idea was to record separately with these new Roland drum machines we'd been given. I set up a studio in the master bedroom of my house with a Fender Rhodes piano and a drum kit.

One day I was working on a piece in D-minor, the saddest [key] of all. I just wrote a sequence, and it sounded nice. I wrote the lyrics spontaneously. I'm not quite sure what the song is about, but there's a lot of anger, a lot of despair and a lot of frustration."

-Phil Collins, Rolling Stone

The Flood / AMA Empty™ Edition Part 3: Early to AMA, Early to Rise
« on: May 07, 2017, 12:59:05 AM »

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